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Using Python for your PhD project? A guide on how to get started

Using Python for your PhD project? A guide on how to get started

Many PhD research scholars make use of simulation and coding tools for their research projects, especially for analysing their quantitative data. Python is one of the most widely used tools for programming while handling complex research data. If you are also planning to use Python for your PhD research project but are confused as to how to go ahead, then we help you understand a few steps you may take to get started. Check out.

Steps to get started with Python

Know Python: It is highly important to know the usage of a tool before you benefit from it. Thus, you should start by learning the basics of Python language syntax and data structures. It is fast and easy to learn programming in Python and coding towards effective data analysis. Python is rich in terms of examples and open source libraries that you can use to your advantage in PhD research. If you have not used this tool earlier, you may take up a short-term course to being operational on it.

Practice coding: When you are good at programming, you can start creating codes for your research. Before handling complex tasks, try making some codes for data filtering, organisation or plotting. While data analysis is the most useful application of simulation codes, you can record the entire pipeline of your research in order to make it reproducible.

Use libraries: There are many wonderful things you can do with the libraries in Python. Explore the ones you can use or combine to work in your research. This will minimize the work you will need to do yourself. It is easy to import libraries in Python.

Explore new ideas: Whether you need to gather some data online or manipulate the data, you can be explorative with coding to your benefit. In fact, you may use this tool to collate just any type of data you may need from the Web. Python is great when you want to process or modify your research data. Thus, start finding its real-world applications and give more richness to your research while also saving your time.

Use for data visualization and analysis: Finally, you may use various available computing modules that make Python more powerful with enhanced capabilities. You may use it with Stata, R, and such other statistical programs for meaningful data analysis and data visualization.

Thus, you may follow the above steps and go from learning Python and coding for data analysis to performing several time-saving tasks in your research. However, some of you may not know the basics of programming or may not have time to learn programming in Python. If you think you cannot use Python effectively for your PhD project, then an alternative for you is to simply follow the step of seeking guidance from a professional statistical consultant. An expert statistician can help you with writing codes and finding new ideas that can broaden the scope of your PhD research.

Writing a PhD Document – Take Help from Professionals

Writing a PhD Document – Take Help from Professionals

I always value knowledge and guidance when it comes to a PhD. Apart from the smart work and dedication, experience and guidance is essential for candidates to successfully accomplish their PhD. During my PhD course I realized that sometimes the help from a guide or a fellow researchers isn’t enough to improve the quality of any PhD document.  Professional writers are the only helping hand in such scenarios.

Now, you must be wondering how a professional academic writer will improve the quality of any doctoral document.

Let me tell you how they can help you in scoring a straight A+:

Getting Started:

  • Formulating important and relevant research question:
    With years of experience and expertise in academic writing, the professional writers help in formulating the relevant research question to support your thesis or dissertation.
  • Finding and reviewing research for your topic:
    The academic writers understand how important it is to go for a background research related to your topic and they help in finding and reviewing the research associated with your topic and plan.

Organization:

  • Structuring the Idea:
    If you have the content but you’re unable to structure your idea then professional writers are the only help you should look up to. They will provide you with a detailed structure or plan to carry out your research flawlessly with ease.
  • Composing the narrative:
    I understand how difficult it becomes for the candidates who have completed their research but need help composing the narrative. In such scenarios, taking profession writers’ help will definitely get you through the deep sea of problems.

Clarity:

  • Struggling with English?
    Is English your second language and you are struggling to write your PhD document for an English-speaking university, then you should take guidance from native-academic English writers who have the strong command over language.
  • Fine-tune the language
    The expert writers will help you to improve the quality of PhD document while fine-tuning the language of your dissertation or thesis. They help in improving the quality of your expression.

Statistics and Data Analysis:

  • Selection of appropriate statistical tool:
    The qualified statistician will help you in selecting the statistical tools to test the hypothesis of your research. It will help in carry out the research with ease.
  • Help with handling the data:
    The experts will offer the help for handling the bulk of data to get the expected outcome for your research and they do it pretty well.
  • Interpreting the statistical output and formulating the conclusion:
    As it is difficult for some researchers to interpret or understand the statistical outcome, the academic experts will help you in interpreting the outcome and formulating the conclusion of your research.
  • Designing a survey or questionnaire:
    The expected result of a research will only be achieved by developing a survey or questionnaire in the right direction. The professional help will help you in designing a survey or questionnaire that will produce the desired outcome.
  • Help for SAS, SPSS, Statistica and Excel:
    Candidates feel clumsy when they need to perform the statistical test using tools like SPSS, SAS, Excel and many more. But, you don’t need to worry about it anymore, expert statistician will always be there to guide your way.

Jumping over Hurdles:

  • Facing the Rejection:
    Was your thesis or dissertation rejected? Worry not, the professional academic writers have got your back to serve you with the quality of research writing.
  • Interpreting and Implementing the comment:
    If you are in need of interpreting and implementing the comment you received from your guide, the expert writers are the only helping hand should look up to.
  • Prepare for defense:
    Experts will help you in preparing your thesis defense and help in securing good grade.

I hope from the above mentioned points it would be clear to you that taking help from professional makes wonder to your thesis. For more info regarding the same, post your queries in the comment box below!

Writing a HYPOTHESIS of the Research

Writing a HYPOTHESIS of the Research

Being a PhD thesis writer, creating a hypothesis for your research study could be a bit tricky part. The hypothesis of the research can also be considered as a statement of predicting the results of the study.

Thus, when you frame a hypothesis always bear in mind that the statement should be

  • Objective
  • Testable
  • Linked with the variables of the study

Here, you should also remember that when you frame a hypothesis there are two statements which are framed simultaneously, in terms of Null hypothesis (symbolized as H0) and Alternate hypothesis (symbolized as H1).

In general terms, the Null hypothesis is a statement which is supposed to be ACCEPTED by the researcher and which is deemed to be the cause of the research. Whereas, the alternate hypothesis is the antithesis of the Null hypothesis (i.e. supposed to be REJECTED)!

For an instance, your study focuses on the subject of employee retention in an organization. In this study you are focusing on various factors which are responsible for retaining the employees in an organization. Thus, when you try to frame the hypothesis statement, you need to concretely define the variables of the study first.

By variables we mean that the variables have various categories such as: dependent variables; independent variables and control variables. The independent variable is the one which influences the dependent variable. The control variables are the ones which determine the conditions in which the dependent and independent variables interact with each other.

Continuing with the example mentioned above, here the independent variables would be the factors which influence the employee retention. Let’s say in your study, you chose these variables as:

  • Source of recruitment
  • Skills and job profile match and
  • Experience of the employee

Note of caution: Now understand that the variable Source of recruitment is also broadly defined. There could be numerous ways of recruiting the employee. Hence, you need to focus on this part as well because the influence of each source of recruitment in retention of employee may vary.

Sources of recruitment could be

  • campus placement;
  • online job portal;
  • recruitment agencies, and
  • advertisement in newspapers

framework

Figure: Framework of Variables of the Research

Note of caution: Categorisi ng the broad variables into specific variables is crucial as the impact of distinct sources of recruitment could vary on the employee retention. If these sources would not be categorized then the research seems generalized and would loose on providing specific insights to the academicians and industry people.

After identifying and categorising the variables you can easily define the hypothesis statement which can be tested as well. The hypothesis statement would follow as:

Ha0: Sources of recruitment impact the retention of employee in an organisation

Ha1: Sources of recruitment does not impact the retention of employee in an organisation

The sub-hypothesis of the main hypothesis are:

Hb0: Employees chosen through campus placement tend to stay for long duration in an organisation

Hb1: Employees chosen through campus placement do not stay for long durations in an organisation

Hc0: Employees chosen through online portals tend to stay for long duration in an organisation

Hc1: Employees chosen through online portals do not stay for long duration in an organisation

Similarly you can frame the hypothesis for the other two variables in the similar manner…

Framing a hypothesis for your dissertation would become a cakewalk if you would follow these steps. Just like the other chapters and sections of your dissertation, the hypothesis statement acts as pillars for drawing conclusion.

Note of caution: If you would make incorrect assumptions (i.e. the predicting statement) then the aims, objectives and all your efforts being invested would go in vain.

Follow these steps to form an appropriate hypothesis for your dear dissertation.

Write Your PhD Thesis In 2 Months

Write Your PhD Thesis In 2 Months

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Thesis writing is no doubt a multi-month ordeal that makes you pull your hair out. But, when you have to submit your thesis work in two months all you have to do is follow a plan, set your deadlines and work steadily, more importantly smart work is required from your end.

After having selected your topic of interest, there are multifarious tasks such as literature review, preparing the questionnaire, data analysis and interpretation reports that you need to cover up efficiently.

This article is devoted to ways that you can get way ahead of the curve from the very beginning to the submission of your thesis

1.Get Started With Literature Review:

The starting point for a PhD thesis writer is to read truckloads of papers relevant to your topic of thesis so that you can develop an understanding of your experimental techniques and learn more about your area of interest. Literature Review develops the understanding of what has been done so far in your field and what questions remain to be answered, where your research will contribute.

The following points should be in your consideration:

  • How do you find relevant papers without wasting much time?

    As you don’t have much time, so definitely don’t want it to get wasted over browsing unnecessary data, what you can do is go through Google Scholar and Pubmed for advance search or boolean search. Pubmed offers the great facility to set up citation alerts that notify you via email every time these articles are cited.

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Fig : Pubmed Advance Search

  • The software you can use to save your time on literature review is ‘EndNote’. ‘EndNote’ is here to serve you with its incredible capability of managing bibliographies and references. There are several ways to add a reference to a library: manually, exporting, importing, copying from another EndNote library, connecting from EndNote. It enables the user to select multiple citations and saves the user from having to enter manually the citation information and the abstracts.

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Fig: EndNote

2. Preparing The Questionnaire:

After gathering all the information required and understanding the gap between previously carried out research and your findings, the next task is to prepare a questionnaire, which will cover all the possible aspects of your thesis.
There are two types of questionnaire:

  1. Qualitative Questionnaire
  2. Quantitative Questionnaire

Difference between Qualitative & Quantitavie Questionnaire:

Qualitative

Quantitative

Conceptual

  • Concerned with understanding human behaviour from the informant’s perspective

  • Assumes a dynamic & negotiated reality

  • Concerned with discovering facts about social phenomena

  • Assumes a fixed and measurable reality

Methodological

  • Data are collected through participant observation & interviews

  • Data are analysed by themes from descriptions by informants

  • Data are reported in the language of informant

  • Data are collected through measuring things

  • Data are analysed through numerical comparisons & statistical test

  • Data are reported through statistical analyses

Qualitative Questionnaire:

Download the sample ‘Qualitative Questionnaire

Quantitative Questionnaire:

Download the sample ‘Quantitative Questionnaire

3. Research Methodology:

The next chapter of your thesis that will cover the method to carry out the experiments is ‘Research Methodology.’

Research philosophy is the way of explaining your research methods and how that influences your work. It should be incorporated in your dissertation as it solves the issue on which methods to apply in your research. It highly depends upon the individual’s perception of understanding things as it is a belief about a way in which research should be conducted.

Research Philosophy

Research Method

Research Approach

Positivism

Quantitative methods comprising of sampling techniques, questionnaires/ surveys, stuructured interviews, observation etc.

Deductive.

This approach is based on observing and forming hypothesis n an already existing theory.

Interpretivism

Qualitative methods comprising of unstructured interviews, focus group, participant observation, case studies, etc.

Inductive.

This approach is initiated through observation and patterns to form a new theory.

Realism

Quantitative & Qualitative

Now the question is, which research approach to select?

  • It would depend upon how much time you have. The decutive approach is quicker to complete whereas inductive approach requires ample amount of time.

  • It depends on how much risk you can take. Deductive approach has less risk of failure. Inductive research is more risky as it is not necessary for a theory to evolve.

4. Data Analysis:

It’s difficult when you have to find out a result after calculating so many figures. As in this calculative instant of time it’s empirical to participate a number of data and find out the best result possible in any of your research, here what mainly you need are some authentic statistical tools that can simplify your data’s into an upshot without investing much of your time.

There are many tests that are need to apply on the data, and selecting the appropriate test for your data is a tough and time-consuming job, so, here is a flowchart to help you out in this situation:

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There are many tools for the data analysis that you can use and save your time.

  1. SPSS: SPSS Statistics is a package used for data analysis or statistical analysis. SPSS is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers and marketing organizations & data miners.

    SPSS shows two views as per the requirement i.e. Data View & Variable View.

Data View:

1234

Variable View:

123

2. NVivo:

Nvivo is a software package for qualitative data analysis. It is used for working with rich text or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volume of data are required.

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5. Conclusion:

Many candidates find concluding chapter difficult to write for several reasons. As there is no one right way to construct a concluding paragraph, there are some guidelines that can help you to end your thesis on a strong note.

  • Restate your thesis implicitly
  • Emphasize the importance of your subject by placing it in an elaborated context
  • Give Suggestion for the future based on what you have argued.
  • End on a powerful and relevant quote that serves to sum up your work.

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6. Editing & Proofreading:

Once you are done with writing your thesis, the next important task is to edit and proofread your copy of the thesis. As you don’t have much time left, so, don’t go for editing on your own. Hire a professional help who can assist you with the complete process of editing & proofreading and make your thesis a perfect piece of work. Another important aspect of editing is checking for plagiarism. You can check for plagiarism online using en.writecheck.com and for grammar check you can use grammarly.com.

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