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Using Python for your PhD project? A guide on how to get started

Using Python for your PhD project? A guide on how to get started

Many PhD research scholars make use of simulation and coding tools for their research projects, especially for analysing their quantitative data. Python is one of the most widely used tools for programming while handling complex research data. If you are also planning to use Python for your PhD research project but are confused as to how to go ahead, then we help you understand a few steps you may take to get started. Check out.

Steps to get started with Python

Know Python: It is highly important to know the usage of a tool before you benefit from it. Thus, you should start by learning the basics of Python language syntax and data structures. It is fast and easy to learn programming in Python and coding towards effective data analysis. Python is rich in terms of examples and open source libraries that you can use to your advantage in PhD research. If you have not used this tool earlier, you may take up a short-term course to being operational on it.

Practice coding: When you are good at programming, you can start creating codes for your research. Before handling complex tasks, try making some codes for data filtering, organisation or plotting. While data analysis is the most useful application of simulation codes, you can record the entire pipeline of your research in order to make it reproducible.

Use libraries: There are many wonderful things you can do with the libraries in Python. Explore the ones you can use or combine to work in your research. This will minimize the work you will need to do yourself. It is easy to import libraries in Python.

Explore new ideas: Whether you need to gather some data online or manipulate the data, you can be explorative with coding to your benefit. In fact, you may use this tool to collate just any type of data you may need from the Web. Python is great when you want to process or modify your research data. Thus, start finding its real-world applications and give more richness to your research while also saving your time.

Use for data visualization and analysis: Finally, you may use various available computing modules that make Python more powerful with enhanced capabilities. You may use it with Stata, R, and such other statistical programs for meaningful data analysis and data visualization.

Thus, you may follow the above steps and go from learning Python and coding for data analysis to performing several time-saving tasks in your research. However, some of you may not know the basics of programming or may not have time to learn programming in Python. If you think you cannot use Python effectively for your PhD project, then an alternative for you is to simply follow the step of seeking guidance from a professional statistical consultant. An expert statistician can help you with writing codes and finding new ideas that can broaden the scope of your PhD research.

What is the best thesis writing advice for scholars?

What is the best thesis writing advice for scholars?

There is a glut of writing advice that is available for scholars, particularly that is related to thesis writing. The internet is flooded with books, blogs and articles that are getting circulated with writing advice and tips to allow them to handle the writing task easily. However, most of the available advice is repetitive and does not come of much help to the writer.

Some of the most common tips you would find available for your phd thesis writing:
1. You must write every day, right from the beginning of your PhD
2. Do not overthink while writing as this may come in the flow of your writing
3. Believe in doing work rather than doing perfect work, as improvisations can be done at a later stage
4. Take rewriting as an integral part of writing and not as a separate pressure or load.

You must surely not be oblivious to these tips being a PhD scholar but despite that all scholars, sometime or the other time, do encounter stressed phases in the process of thesis writing. The tips above are common and applicable to all but may not be effective for all, every time.

Writing is not a straight path. It is a process involving a lot of complexity and narrowing the thoughts down to a single statement advice is actual oversimplification of the complexity of the ordeal of writing.

Just trying to follow these tips blindly, I think would not work for the main reason that before following advice, you need to incorporate the skill for being able to apply these tips in a customised manner that could benefit you.You need to leave the simplification of the advice and the subtlety behind to be able to make it useful for you.

You would surely be reading advice from many corners and would come across theoretical models that claim to bring skill development, end of they though, it is your expertise that will determine the amount of efforts taken by you. As an amateur, a lot of concentration is wanted in all aspects related to writing but to a seasoned writer, the flow of writing comes more as a spontaneous action rather than a conscious effort.

Practice as a means to perfection isn’t just applicable to sports coaching but the flow is equally well in creative activities too because to come in the flow of doing things effortlessly, you must have high level of expertise. However, you being good at something doesn’t necessarily makes you a good advisor too. It is ultimately the writer who has to polish and surface out those skills to be able to adopt and adhere to the tips given by the advisors.

A supervisor’s account of reviewing literature review by candidates from different cultural backgrounds

A supervisor’s account of reviewing literature review by candidates from different cultural backgrounds

There is a whole lot of dilemma linked with being a supervisor to students from different cultures. It is understandable that these students must be feeling perplexed, lonely and confused in their Ph.D. journey. As a supervisor, with a humane touch one would want to do everything that is reasonable enough to help, but then there is always some ambiguity about the best way to help, and with so many responsibilities attached, a supervisor is always short of time and energy, both.

With varied experience in my kitty, and all that I have seen around, I feel that prospective supervisors should be given a choice to accept or not a student who belongs to a diverse cultural background. This holds all the more weight when one talks about semantic barriers, such as the scholar and supervisor not being comfortable on the grounds of language. In universities and institutes who have big monetary motives often don’t say  no to  applying scholars as they don’t consider these challenges significant in front of the money that is coming to them.

As a supervisor you much check in prior to accepting that whether you are in a position to offer support that needs to be given to the scholar. Sometimes, I have also had to face rudeness from the scholar who belonged to another culture. To be explained better, because of cultural differences, certain behaviour of the scholar seems unacceptable in our culture. For example, getting late for appointments, or looking into the eyes and talking. All these may be signs of normal behaviour in some culture but at the same time signalling rudeness or impoliteness in some.  If you are facing anything such, you must do what I did. Explain to the scholar in a tactful manner the changes in the culture that need to be adopted certainly.

Yet another dilemma faced during handling cross cultural scholars is the correction of work and telling them their mistakes. The usage of appropriate words and vocabulary matching the standards of the culture are certain challenges that are difficult to comprehend by the scholar. One needs to devote a lot of time and energy on perpetual basis, trying to do this. This may sometimes make scholars believe it is actually a part of the supervisor’s job but that is not possible, and then further conflicts or differences may arise, which sometimes may get out of control.

Writing a PhD Document – Take Help from Professionals

Writing a PhD Document – Take Help from Professionals

I always value knowledge and guidance when it comes to a PhD. Apart from the smart work and dedication, experience and guidance is essential for candidates to successfully accomplish their PhD. During my PhD course I realized that sometimes the help from a guide or a fellow researchers isn’t enough to improve the quality of any PhD document.  Professional writers are the only helping hand in such scenarios.

Now, you must be wondering how a professional academic writer will improve the quality of any doctoral document.

Let me tell you how they can help you in scoring a straight A+:

Getting Started:

  • Formulating important and relevant research question:
    With years of experience and expertise in academic writing, the professional writers help in formulating the relevant research question to support your thesis or dissertation.
  • Finding and reviewing research for your topic:
    The academic writers understand how important it is to go for a background research related to your topic and they help in finding and reviewing the research associated with your topic and plan.

Organization:

  • Structuring the Idea:
    If you have the content but you’re unable to structure your idea then professional writers are the only help you should look up to. They will provide you with a detailed structure or plan to carry out your research flawlessly with ease.
  • Composing the narrative:
    I understand how difficult it becomes for the candidates who have completed their research but need help composing the narrative. In such scenarios, taking profession writers’ help will definitely get you through the deep sea of problems.

Clarity:

  • Struggling with English?
    Is English your second language and you are struggling to write your PhD document for an English-speaking university, then you should take guidance from native-academic English writers who have the strong command over language.
  • Fine-tune the language
    The expert writers will help you to improve the quality of PhD document while fine-tuning the language of your dissertation or thesis. They help in improving the quality of your expression.

Statistics and Data Analysis:

  • Selection of appropriate statistical tool:
    The qualified statistician will help you in selecting the statistical tools to test the hypothesis of your research. It will help in carry out the research with ease.
  • Help with handling the data:
    The experts will offer the help for handling the bulk of data to get the expected outcome for your research and they do it pretty well.
  • Interpreting the statistical output and formulating the conclusion:
    As it is difficult for some researchers to interpret or understand the statistical outcome, the academic experts will help you in interpreting the outcome and formulating the conclusion of your research.
  • Designing a survey or questionnaire:
    The expected result of a research will only be achieved by developing a survey or questionnaire in the right direction. The professional help will help you in designing a survey or questionnaire that will produce the desired outcome.
  • Help for SAS, SPSS, Statistica and Excel:
    Candidates feel clumsy when they need to perform the statistical test using tools like SPSS, SAS, Excel and many more. But, you don’t need to worry about it anymore, expert statistician will always be there to guide your way.

Jumping over Hurdles:

  • Facing the Rejection:
    Was your thesis or dissertation rejected? Worry not, the professional academic writers have got your back to serve you with the quality of research writing.
  • Interpreting and Implementing the comment:
    If you are in need of interpreting and implementing the comment you received from your guide, the expert writers are the only helping hand should look up to.
  • Prepare for defense:
    Experts will help you in preparing your thesis defense and help in securing good grade.

I hope from the above mentioned points it would be clear to you that taking help from professional makes wonder to your thesis. For more info regarding the same, post your queries in the comment box below!

Write Your PhD Thesis In 2 Months

Write Your PhD Thesis In 2 Months

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Thesis writing is no doubt a multi-month ordeal that makes you pull your hair out. But, when you have to submit your thesis work in two months all you have to do is follow a plan, set your deadlines and work steadily, more importantly smart work is required from your end.

After having selected your topic of interest, there are multifarious tasks such as literature review, preparing the questionnaire, data analysis and interpretation reports that you need to cover up efficiently.

This article is devoted to ways that you can get way ahead of the curve from the very beginning to the submission of your thesis

1.Get Started With Literature Review:

The starting point for a PhD thesis writer is to read truckloads of papers relevant to your topic of thesis so that you can develop an understanding of your experimental techniques and learn more about your area of interest. Literature Review develops the understanding of what has been done so far in your field and what questions remain to be answered, where your research will contribute.

The following points should be in your consideration:

  • How do you find relevant papers without wasting much time?

    As you don’t have much time, so definitely don’t want it to get wasted over browsing unnecessary data, what you can do is go through Google Scholar and Pubmed for advance search or boolean search. Pubmed offers the great facility to set up citation alerts that notify you via email every time these articles are cited.

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Fig : Pubmed Advance Search

  • The software you can use to save your time on literature review is ‘EndNote’. ‘EndNote’ is here to serve you with its incredible capability of managing bibliographies and references. There are several ways to add a reference to a library: manually, exporting, importing, copying from another EndNote library, connecting from EndNote. It enables the user to select multiple citations and saves the user from having to enter manually the citation information and the abstracts.

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Fig: EndNote

2. Preparing The Questionnaire:

After gathering all the information required and understanding the gap between previously carried out research and your findings, the next task is to prepare a questionnaire, which will cover all the possible aspects of your thesis.
There are two types of questionnaire:

  1. Qualitative Questionnaire
  2. Quantitative Questionnaire

Difference between Qualitative & Quantitavie Questionnaire:

Qualitative

Quantitative

Conceptual

  • Concerned with understanding human behaviour from the informant’s perspective

  • Assumes a dynamic & negotiated reality

  • Concerned with discovering facts about social phenomena

  • Assumes a fixed and measurable reality

Methodological

  • Data are collected through participant observation & interviews

  • Data are analysed by themes from descriptions by informants

  • Data are reported in the language of informant

  • Data are collected through measuring things

  • Data are analysed through numerical comparisons & statistical test

  • Data are reported through statistical analyses

Qualitative Questionnaire:

Download the sample ‘Qualitative Questionnaire

Quantitative Questionnaire:

Download the sample ‘Quantitative Questionnaire

3. Research Methodology:

The next chapter of your thesis that will cover the method to carry out the experiments is ‘Research Methodology.’

Research philosophy is the way of explaining your research methods and how that influences your work. It should be incorporated in your dissertation as it solves the issue on which methods to apply in your research. It highly depends upon the individual’s perception of understanding things as it is a belief about a way in which research should be conducted.

Research Philosophy

Research Method

Research Approach

Positivism

Quantitative methods comprising of sampling techniques, questionnaires/ surveys, stuructured interviews, observation etc.

Deductive.

This approach is based on observing and forming hypothesis n an already existing theory.

Interpretivism

Qualitative methods comprising of unstructured interviews, focus group, participant observation, case studies, etc.

Inductive.

This approach is initiated through observation and patterns to form a new theory.

Realism

Quantitative & Qualitative

Now the question is, which research approach to select?

  • It would depend upon how much time you have. The decutive approach is quicker to complete whereas inductive approach requires ample amount of time.

  • It depends on how much risk you can take. Deductive approach has less risk of failure. Inductive research is more risky as it is not necessary for a theory to evolve.

4. Data Analysis:

It’s difficult when you have to find out a result after calculating so many figures. As in this calculative instant of time it’s empirical to participate a number of data and find out the best result possible in any of your research, here what mainly you need are some authentic statistical tools that can simplify your data’s into an upshot without investing much of your time.

There are many tests that are need to apply on the data, and selecting the appropriate test for your data is a tough and time-consuming job, so, here is a flowchart to help you out in this situation:

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There are many tools for the data analysis that you can use and save your time.

  1. SPSS: SPSS Statistics is a package used for data analysis or statistical analysis. SPSS is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers and marketing organizations & data miners.

    SPSS shows two views as per the requirement i.e. Data View & Variable View.

Data View:

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Variable View:

123

2. NVivo:

Nvivo is a software package for qualitative data analysis. It is used for working with rich text or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volume of data are required.

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5. Conclusion:

Many candidates find concluding chapter difficult to write for several reasons. As there is no one right way to construct a concluding paragraph, there are some guidelines that can help you to end your thesis on a strong note.

  • Restate your thesis implicitly
  • Emphasize the importance of your subject by placing it in an elaborated context
  • Give Suggestion for the future based on what you have argued.
  • End on a powerful and relevant quote that serves to sum up your work.

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6. Editing & Proofreading:

Once you are done with writing your thesis, the next important task is to edit and proofread your copy of the thesis. As you don’t have much time left, so, don’t go for editing on your own. Hire a professional help who can assist you with the complete process of editing & proofreading and make your thesis a perfect piece of work. Another important aspect of editing is checking for plagiarism. You can check for plagiarism online using en.writecheck.com and for grammar check you can use grammarly.com.

Tips to Choose Authentic PhD Thesis Writers

Tips to Choose Authentic PhD Thesis Writers

PhD being a notable and highest degree of education deserves and also demands lots of remarkable and detail work. A research thesis consists of a long list of contents starting from study plan and winding up at appendices. It also includes many criticalities like data collection and its analysis, findings and its discussions, etc. Hence, presenting an absolutely equipped thesis becomes a tough nut to crack for pursuers.

Also, writing and presenting something unique and eye catching is a burning aspiration of all the researchers. In this aspect researcher’s wave for online data collection, journal studies, books and their practical revelation, but these sources are not sufficient enough for completion of thesis. Lagging behind is the researcher’s previous experience and expertise in the work. This holding nail can be thrown out by the help of some expert and PhD thesis writers. These PhD writers and experts can add some jewels to make your thesis magnificent enough for a handsome grade in your degree. So, let’s go through some small yet crucial tips to choose an authentic PhD thesis writer-

  • Your PhD thesis writer should preferably be from the same subject background so that he can have a good hand holding on the subject matter and steer you in an improved way.
  • Thesis writer should generate a unique and fresh work that definitely evades plagiarism. As, copying the work can cut down both your knowledge and grades also this is ethically not genuine.
  • Choose a writer who can be easily contacted and discuss the proceedings of work with you whenever required.
  • Never forget reviewing the past records, researcher’s feedback and sample paper works of the writers before finalizing them.

Thus, an eye on aforesaid points can assist you with an expert writer.

Guidelines to Write a Good Thesis Proposal

Guidelines to Write a Good Thesis Proposal

Thesis proposals are generally written in present as well as future tense. After selecting a topic for your thesis, the step is to give a striking introduction. This can be attempted last after completing the remaining sections of the thesis proposal. After this you can prepare a research question and convert it into a statement so as to make a proper work plan. The undesirable consequences of the problem should be noted. Now you can convince the reader about the importance of the problem with regard to yourself and the society.

Now you can state the purpose of the study – whether it is done to interpret, analyse, or change the problem. The next section is mentioning the significance or the advantages of the study conducted. For this you can answer questions concerning the importance of the study, the people targeted, and the consequences which can happen to the society, program, or theory if the research is performed or not performed.

The next section covers the methodology followed in the research where you can state the research perspective and your viewpoint. You can provide at least three methodologies which could be feasible and choose the most appropriate one. Now provide instances of theories or studies which support as well as oppose the approach to the given problem. It is also better to include the methodologies used by others who have dealt with the problem before. After this is done, you can provide the expected results of the research carried out. The terms used to state the problem, methodology, and purpose should be well-defined. Also, provide various assumptions concerned with the study like world views, basic values, beliefs, etc. The reader should be aware of your attitude towards the problem as well.

Limitations concerning the methodologies and concepts related to the study should be revealed. Now the procedure used to carry out the study can be provided in detail. Finally, you can think about the long range consequences if the study is done or not done.

Design of Research Questions

Design of Research Questions

Devoid of coming up with concrete research question(s), any research based study can never be started. Based on observational phenomenology, a broad research objective is formed, and then through epistemology and construct building, the research objective is boiled down to concrete research question(s). Unless those research questions are not specific and measurable, the research work can never be effective in all aspects. Specificity of the research question is required in order to keep the study focused. There are several organizations, which assist researchers in designing research questions for their studies. For more information about designing research questions, kindly go through the pages of www.phdthesiswriters.com.

Learning the Turabian Style

Learning the Turabian Style

There are many styles of writing that are used for preparing academic articles. One of the most popular styles of writing is the Turabian style. It was founded by Kate Turabian, an editor at the University of Chicago. It is a rather simple citation guide and students would be well advised to learn this guide. There are many institutions who want their students to prepare their content using this style of writing. Details about this style of writing can easily be gained online on the many writing labs that are available on the Internet as well as several books that have been written on the subject.

Various Thesis Writing Styles

Various Thesis Writing Styles

There are various writing styles that apply to writing a thesis. The writing style is dictated not by the writer but by the university. One of the very well known thesis writing styles is the American Psychological Association style, also known as the APA style.

Yet another accepted style is the Chicago Manual of Style, also known as the Turabian style. The third well accepted style is the Modern Language Association style or MLA style. The Chicago Manual of Style is used by students to present reports related to doctorate of humanities.

It ( the Turabian style ) has many factors in common with the APA and MLA. Students knowing the APA and MLA styles can pick up the Turabian style very easily and adopt it while writing a thesis. The guide of the Turabian style explains in details various rules and regulations of formatting and grammar that need to be applied while writing the thesis.

The borders, font size and font kind are similar in all these three styles of writing. The font kind that needs to be followed is ‘Times New Roman,’ the font size ‘12’ and the borders ‘one inch.’ Each of these styles holds its own methods of presenting the list of books, references and extracts. The way the heading of the page is used also differs greatly in each of these three styles.

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